一线口语E2say

2015-4-15 17:16:25

狗狗能读懂人的思维

 从古到今,狗一直是人类最忠实的朋友,他不是我们的宠物,我们要信任他,珍惜他们对我们的信任。而且他会读懂我们的感情哦,我们绝不能欺骗他,失信一次便会永远得不到信任,所以好好照顾你们的狗狗吧

Dogs are not fooled for long by misleading cues, and stop responding to people who have proven unreliable
狗不会一直被误导性的愚弄,一旦它认为这个人不可靠,它就不会再作出回应。
Dogs may not seem terribly bright when they're chasing their own tails, but in many ways they are clever creatures. In particular, they are very socially aware, both of humans and of each other.
追着自己的尾巴玩的狗,看起来可能不是很聪明。但是在很多方面,它们都非常聪明。它们尤其懂得与人类和其他同类相处。
Many studies have reported that they can sense human emotions. Recent research has found that they can tell the difference between happy and angry faces, and even show jealousy.
许多研究已经证明狗可以察觉到人类的情绪。近期研究发现它们不仅能分辨开心和生气的表情,甚至能表现出嫉妒。
It now seems that they can sense when a person is untrustworthy. Once a dog has decided a person is unreliable, it stops following the cues they give.
现在,它们好像能感觉到一个人是否可信。一旦狗认为某人不可靠,它就不会再听从他的指挥。

Dogs usually trust their owners (Credit: Victoria Standen)
狗通常信任主人
It's been known for years that dogs understand what it means when a human points at something. If a dog's owner points to the location of a ball, stick or food, the dog will run and explore the location the person is pointing to.
很多年前我们就知道当人类指向某个地方时,狗狗能明白那代表什么意思。如果主人指向球、棍子或者食物,狗会跑过去,在主人所指的地方东闻一下,西嗅一下。
The latest research shows they are quick to figure out if these gestures are misleading.
最新研究表明狗能迅速发现这些指示是不是误导性的。
In a study published in the journal Animal Cognition, a team led by Akiko Takaoka of Kyoto University in Japan presented 34 dogs with three rounds of pointing.
日本京都大学Akiko Takaoka团队在《动物认知》上发表的研究中,他们给34只狗3轮指示。
In the first round, the experimenters accurately pointed to where food was hidden in a container. But in the second round, they pointed to an empty container.
第一次, 实验人员准确指向了藏着食物的柜台。第二次,他们指的是空的柜台。
In the third round, the same experimenter again pointed to the container with food.
第三次,同一位实验人员再一次指向了藏有食物的柜台。
But now the dog did not respond to the experimenter's cue. That suggests, says Takaoka, that the dogs could use their experience of the experimenter to assess whether they were a reliable guide.
但是这时狗不再对应实验人员的指示作出回应。Takaoka说这表明狗从与实验人员相处的经验中得知他们不是可靠的指导者。
After these rounds a new experimenter replicated the first round. Once again, the dogs followed this new person with interest.
三轮之后,一位新的实验人员重复第一轮。这一次,狗狗们饶有兴致地听从了这个人发出的指令。

Takaoka says she was surprised that the dogs "devalued the reliability of a human" so quickly.
Takaoka说狗能这么快就“不信任一个人”让她很是惊讶。
"Dogs have more sophisticated social intelligence than we thought. This social intelligence evolved selectively in their long life history with humans."
“狗的社交智慧比我们想象的更成熟,这是在它们与人类在漫长的相处历史中有选择得获取的经验。”
The next step, she adds, will be to test closely related species such as wolves. This would then reveal the "profound effects of domestication" on the social intelligence of dogs.
她接着说道,下一步将要测试与之相近的物种,比如狼。这能揭示“驯养”对狗的社交智慧的深远影响
The study highlights that dogs like things to be predictable, says John Bradshaw of the University of Bristol in the UK, who was not involved with the research.
英国布里斯托大学的John Bradshaw并没有参加这项研究,他说,该研究着重强调了狗喜欢可预测的事物,
As soon as events in their lives become irregular they will look for alternative things to do.
只要生活中出现了反常的事情,它们就会寻找替代物。
And if they consistently don't know what's going to happen next they can get stressed, aggressive or fearful, he adds. "Dogs whose owners are inconsistent to them often have behavioural disorders."
他补充说,如果狗狗不知道接下来会发生什么就会变得很紧张、好斗或者害怕。“言行不一致的主人饲养的狗常常会行为紊乱。”
This last part of the experiment can be explained by the fascination dogs have with anything new: "Dogs are almost information junkies", says Bradshaw, so a new experimenter is "trusted" once more.
狗狗对新事物的着迷可以解释实验的最后一部分。Bradshaw说:“狗可以说是信息上瘾者。”所以新的实验人员可以再次获得“信任”。

Cassie doesn't trust unreliable strangers either
凯西不相信不可靠的陌生人
The finding comes as no surprise to dog owner Victoria Standen. She owns a collie (pictured), which is considered to be among the most intelligent breeds.
Victoria Standen对这样的结果并不意外。她养了一直柯利犬(如图)。它被认为是最聪明的狗之一。
When out for a walk, the collie will sit at the point of a junction and wait to see which way to go. "I've taken to pointing which direction and after she looks that way, she looks back to me to check it's okay to run off," says Standen.
外出散步的时候,它会坐在交叉路口等着,看应该往哪边走。“我指一个方向,它先往那看,然后再回头看看我是不是让它去。” Standen说。
What's more, if a stranger has proven to be unreliable (and not a food source) her dog is less likely to trust them.
并且,如果它认为一个陌生人不可信(而且这个人没有食物给它吃),她的狗就不太会相信他。
It has become increasingly clear that dogs are more intelligent than was once believed, but their intelligence is very different to ours, says Bradshaw.
我们越来越清楚地知道狗比我们以为的要聪明得多,但是它们的聪明和我们有很大的不同,Bradshaw说。
"Dogs are very sensitive to human behaviour but they have fewer preconceptions," he says. "They live in the present, they don't reflect back on the past in an abstract way, or plan for the future."
“狗对人类的行为十分敏感,但是它们很少有先入之见。它们活在当下,不会对过往的事情做出反应,也不会对未来的事情做出计划。”
And when they encounter a situation, he adds, they will react to what's there "rather than thinking deeply about what that entails".
当它们遇到什么事的时候,它们会倾向于按当时情况做出反应,而不会想想有什么深层含义。

If you mislead her, she won't trust you
如果你误导它,它就不再信任你。
Dogs then, are clearly not mindlessly listening to us when we gesture which this study provides more evidence for, says Brian Hare who is chief scientific officer at Dognition.
Dognition的首席科学官Brian Hare指出,狗不是盲目听从我们的指挥,这项研究进一步证明了这一点。
"They evaluate the information we give them based in part on how reliable it is in helping them accomplish their goals. Many family dogs, for instance, will ignore your gesture when you point incorrectly and use their memory to find a hidden treat,” adds Hare.
Hare说:“狗根据判断我们能不能帮助它们实现目标的可靠性来评估我们所给的信息。例如,如果你指向的是错误方向,许多家养宠物犬会忽视指令,依靠自己的记忆来找到藏起来的食物。”

 

精彩评论
我要回答
◎欢迎参与讨论,请在这里发表您的看法、交流您的观点。

搜索

在线预约试听课

姓 名
Email
电 话
年 龄