The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by rogue Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria
On September 18, 1931, Lt. Suemori Kawamoto detonated a small quantity of dynamite close to a railway line owned by Japan's South Manchuria Railway near Mukden (now Shenyang).The explosion was so weak that it failed to destroy the track and a train passed over it minutes later, but the Imperial Japanese Army accused Chinese dissidents of the act and responded with a full invasion that led to the occupation of Manchuria, in which Japan established its puppet state of Manchukuo six months later. The ruse of war was soon exposed to the international community, leading Japan to diplomatic isolation and its March 1933 withdrawal from the League of Nations.
The bombing act is known as the "Liutiaohu Incident" (simplified Chinese: 柳条湖事变; traditional Chinese: 柳條湖事變; pinyin: Liǔtiáohú Shìbiàn, Japanese: 柳条湖事件, Ryūjōko-jiken), and the entire episode of events is known in Japan as the "Manchurian Incident" (Kyūjitai: 滿洲事變, Shinjitai: 満州事変, Manshū-jihen) and in China as the "September 18 Incident" (simplified Chinese: 九一八事变; traditional Chinese: 九一八事變; pinyin: Jiǔyībā Shìbiàn).
九一八事变又称(沈阳事变) The Mukden Incident
柳条湖事件 Liutiaohu Incident
中国抗日战争Second Sino-Japanese War
卢沟桥事变Lugou Bridge Incident;
中华民国Republic of China;
抗战War of resistance;
日本关东军the Kwantung army;
勿忘国耻 never forget the national humiliation[hju:'m?l?'e??n]
八路军the eighth route army;
新四军The new fourth army
八年抗战 Eight years'war of resistance;
国民党 Kuomintang、KMT或Chinese Nationalist Party;
卢沟桥事变Marco Polo Bridge Incident(马可波罗桥事变);